A total of 17 studies were included in this review (n = 1,242) with a total of 2,149 surgically treated fractures. There were two prospective controlled trials (n = 139), 10 prospective uncontrolled studies (n = 590) and five retrospective uncontrolled studies (n = 513). Quality assessment scores were reported for each study and mean percentages grouped by trial design: controlled trials 73 per cent; prospective studies 66 per cent; retrospective studies 63 per cent. Ten studies reported on the outcomes of vertebroplasty and seven reported on kyphoplasty.
All 17 included studies reported beneficial outcomes following percutaneous vertebral augmentation procedures: decreased pain (16 studies); decreased medication use (four studies); increased function (12 studies); improved quality of life (six studies); decreased hospital stay (one study); and fewer physician visits (one study).
Fourteen studies reported on complications following percutaneous vertebral augmentation. Cement leakage was the most commonly reported complication (10 studies) and resulted in no symptoms (six studies), radiculopathy (three studies), lower limb paresis (one study) or need for surgical decompression (one study). Additional fractures were noted in four studies.
None of the included studies reported physical therapy interventions following percutaneous vertebral augmentation.