Twelve studies (n=471 patients) were included in the review: one cross-sectional study (n=52 patients); three prospective case-series (n=197 patients); six retrospective case-series (n=104 patients); and two mixed designs (n=118 patients). The overall level of evidence was reported to be weak.
Implants in patients with ectodermal dysplasia and tooth agenesis:
Survival rates ranged from 88.5% to 97.6% in patients with ectodermal dysplasia (n=71 patients, three studies) and from 90% to 100% in patients with tooth agenesis (n=178 patients, five studies).
Prosthesis complications were reported in 17.4% of implants up to 11.8 years following prosthesis insertion (n=15 patients, one study). The most frequent complications were screw loosening and sore spots.
Implant and prosthodontic treatment were associated with positive effects on satisfaction, treatment experience and mandibular function impairment (n=13 patients, one study).
Age, growth and implants:
There were no significant differences in implant survival in ectodermal dysplasia patients aged up to 11, 11 to 18 and more than 18 years (n=51 patients, one study).
The risk of implant failure was significantly higher in ectodermal dysplasia patients younger than 18 years compared with those older than 18 years (hazard ratio 2.5; n=51 patients, one study).
Implant survival was 11.8 years following prosthetic insertion in patients with tooth agenesis. Prosthetic complications was reported in 17.4% of implants (n=15 patients, one study).
One study (n=223) reported no significant change in craniofacial growth in treated compared to untreated ectodermal dysplasia patients.