The analysis was based on a single study with a one-year time horizon. The authors stated that the perspective of the UK National Health Service (NHS) was adopted.
The clinical analysis was based on a prospective, large-scale, blinded, randomised controlled trial (RCT) of 163 children attending mainstream primary schools in Scotland. There were 32 children in the control group and 34 received direct individual therapy, 31 received direct group therapy, 33 received indirect individual therapy, and 33 received indirect group therapy. Two children did not meet the intelligence quotient criterion and were excluded (one from control and one from the indirect group). The inclusion and exclusion criteria were reported in detail, the length of follow-up was 12 months, and an intention-to-treat analysis was conducted. The primary endpoints were the standard scores from the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals - third edition UK (CELF-3UK
) receptive and expressive subscales and these were assessed at baseline, after approximately six months, and at one year follow-up.
Monetary benefit and utility valuations:
Measure of benefit:
No summary benefit measure was used. The primary outcome measures were changes in the CELF-3UK
receptive and expressive scores.
The economic analysis included salary and travel costs. The salaries of personnel delivering the therapy were based on the hourly NHS salaries for therapists and assistants. The travel costs for children were calculated using city licensed taxi tariffs for a return journey from the primary school to the therapy location. The travel costs for therapists and assistants were based on the estimated return distance between the city centre and the therapy location. Similar methods were used to calculate the costs for the control group. All costs were in UK pounds sterling (£), for the fiscal year 2004 to 2005, and bootstrapping techniques were used to calculate the average costs.
Analysis of uncertainty: