Study designs of evaluations included in the review
Studies in which CBT administered in a hypnotic context was compared to the same treatment administered without hypnosis. Inclusion criteria were as follows:
(1) a cognitive-behavioural psychotherapy was administered to at least one group of participants in a hypnotic context;
(2) the same therapy was administered to at least one group of clients in a non-hypnotic context; and
(3) sufficient data were reported to allow calculation of effect size.
Specific interventions included in the review
CBT plus hypnosis and CBT alone. CBT included: relaxation, covert modelling, imagery and coping suggestions, self-monitoring and stimulus control and self-reinforcement, self-monitoring and stimulus control and goal setting, systematic desensitization, cognitive restructuring, self-monitoring and goal setting, cognitive strategy, relaxation and imagery and cognitive restructuring and in vivo practice, and varied treatments.
Participants included in the review
Persons presenting with pain, insomnia, hypertension, anxiety, obesity, snake phobia, self-concept of athletic performance, duodenal ulcer, public speaking anxiety and a mixture of problems. Participants were either clinical patients or college students. No other participant characteristics are provided.
Outcomes assessed in the review
Outcome variables are not stated, only the standardised effect size.
How were decisions on the relevance of primary studies made?
The authors do not state how the papers were selected for the review, or how many of the authors performed the selection.