Study designs of evaluations included in the review
Placebo-controlled randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were eligible for inclusion in the review.
Specific interventions included in the review
Studies of LA given either intermittently via a catheter or as single-shot injections following LC were eligible for inclusion. Studies where the primary aim was to assess the effect of morphine, ketamine, tenoxicam or other analgesics injected intravenously or intraperitoneally were excluded, as were studies using intrathecal morphine. Comparisons of pre- and post-incisional LA, comparisons of different size trocars, and comparisons of epidural or paravertebral block versus local infiltration were also excluded from the review.
The LA included in the review were ropivacaine, bupivacaine, lignocaine and lidocaine. Injection was at the site of trocar insertion, intraperitoneally, or both, and injections were given from pre-incision to the end of the operation.
Participants included in the review
Studies of adults aged over 19 years undergoing LC were eligible for inclusion in the review.
Outcomes assessed in the review
The primary review outcomes were pain at the site of incision, visceral pain and shoulder pain during the 24 hour post-operative period. Consumption of analgesia and side-effects were also assessed in the review. The included studies assessed pain using visual analogue scales, a verbal analogue scale and numeric rating scales.
How were decisions on the relevance of primary studies made?
The author did not state how the studies were assessed for relevance, or how many reviewers performed the assessment.