Study designs of evaluations included in the review
Quasi-experimental or experimental designs were included.
Specific interventions included in the review
Pharmacological, mechanical, coronary artery bypass grafting, nursing, acupuncture, behavioural modification, and pharmacological treatment combined with behavioural modification.
Participants included in the review
Adult cardiac patients with a mean age of 57 years; 68% of the patients were male. Medical diagnoses were as follows: hypertension (54%), heart failure (19%), dysrhythmia (10%), angina pectoris (10%) and myocardial infarction (8%).
Outcomes assessed in the review
QOL, usually measured as symptoms; also as physiological distress or well-being, physical functioning or satisfaction, health perception or satisfaction, social functioning or satisfaction, role functioning or satisfaction, and cognitive functioning. Various instruments were used.
How were decisions on the relevance of primary studies made?
The identified titles and abstracts were screened by two researchers. Each retrieved report was reviewed again by two researchers, and was only included in the review if both reviewers were in agreement.