Five quantitative studies, 41 qualitative studies and four textual papers were included in the review. The quantitative studies were generally of low quality with multiple sources of bias identified.
Two RCTs assessed the partners in care-giving intervention in nursing homes or a special care unit for patients with dementia. There were positive short-term effects on both staff and family perceptions of the other party, but these were not sustained.
Two studies assessed the family involvement in care intervention in nursing homes and dementia care units. There were positive results for families and negative results for residents in the larger study. The other study showed evidence of a positive impact for white participants that contrasted with a negative one for African Americans.
One RCT assessed a family meeting intervention that achieved higher numbers of conferences between staff and family, better care plans and greater focus on psychological needs of patients. Medication use on an as-needed basis was reduced.
Themes and findings of qualitative studies were reported.