To collate and synthesise current practices and beliefs around complementary feeding (CF) practices amongst South Asian infants and young children
Both published and unpublished data will be sought from the following sources:
Web of Science
OVID Maternity & Infant Care
WHO Global Health Library
Grey literature (ie. Non-governmental, UNICEF, WHO)
Members of electronic networks on @jiscmail.ac.uk including minority-ethnic-health and networks developed from the Specialist Electronic Library for Ethnicity and Health will be contacted to request any additional or unpublished material from members of the networks.
References will be hand-searched for possible additional publications.
Concept 3: South Asian/Indian/Pakistani/Bangladeshi/Muslim/Indian Subcontinent
Using relevant MeSH terms where appropriate
Types of study to be included
This systematic review will include all study types including descriptive studies.
1.Studies based on children aged up to two years and/or their families, who are on complementary feeding diets and not those who are solely breastfed.
2.Studies including children of south Asian Descent (Individuals of Indian, Pakistani or Bangladeshi origin)
3.Studies published in English, or with translation available
1. No child data or non-extractable
2. Non-English language paper (unless translation available)
3. Papers which solely focus on breastfeeding only diets
Condition or domain being studied
The link with early childhood feeding and obesity is well described worldwide with evidence of good feeding practices reducing the risk of childhood obesity. In addition, Vitamin D and iron deficiency amongst South Asian families may compound the problem causing both over-nutrition & malnutrition in at-risk children.
Feeding practices therefore play an important role in ensuring adequate nutritional intake, healthy weight gain and the prevalence of obesogenic eating behaviours in young children. South Asian families are therefore key members of the community to target and engage in early interventions to foster healthy feeding practices.
This review aims to ascertain the current understanding of feeding practices adopted by these communities in order to provide appropriate guidance tailored to the needs of their cultural practices.
The study population will include children up to the age of 2 years old. The South Asian population will be reviewed as a whole, with feeding practices unique to individual populations highlighted where available.
With no explicit exclusion criteria, all information on CF practices amongst SA families will be included. This includes but is not limited to food provision, preparation, feeding position and environment.
Exposure to specific dietary patterns, dietary components (as groups e.g.vegetables,fruits, nuts; and individually) or nutrients/food supplements (e.g. antioxidants, vitamin D, omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, vitamin B3, probiotics) will be captured.
Cultural beliefs towards nutrition and changes due to movement from country of origin will also be identified.Information on identifying practices in the country of origin and how these may vary when moving to reside in a different country such as the UK will also be collected.
If any interventional studies are included then all comparators will be considered.
body weight change
absolute changes in body weight
Data extraction, (selection and coding)
Two members of the research team will independently review titles and abstracts of identified studies. If screened for inclusion, the full text of the paper will also be independently assessed by two members. Any discrepancies will be resolved through discussions with the wider research team.
Electronic records will be kept regarding included and excluded studies for audit purposes, specifying reasons for any exclusion.
A pilot of the data extraction form will be undertaken using a minimum of 5 papers, after which the extraction form will be amended/updated as necessary. The data extraction form will be used to extract the relevant data fields from each included study.
Risk of bias (quality) assessment
Quality ratings will be dependent on the type of studies reviewed (ie. Quantitative or qualitative).Quality assessment will consist of use of Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tools to assess both the internal and external validity of each included paper. An overall global study rating will be given.
Quality assessments will be undertaken by one researcher. A second researcher will assess an overlapping sample (20%) of the studies to establish reliability.Studies will not be excluded from the review based on quality ratings but this information will be used in the reporting and analysis of the findings.
Strategy for data synthesis
A narrative synthesis that allows a free discussion of the various explanations with a subsequent summation in the conclusion of the review will be undertaken. Narrative synthesis is the most appropriate approach to answering a research question when a wide range of research designs using both quantitative and qualitative evidence is reviewed. A critical reflection of the synthesis process is included in a summary section of the review.
Analysis of subgroups or subsets
The review will scope the literature for data on South Asians, a diverse population. Where possible, the feeding and nutrition practices of the main South Asian subpopulations; Indian, Pakistani & Bangladeshi will be undertaken.
Contact details for further information
UCL Institute of Child Health, 30 Guildford Street, London, WC1N 1EH
Organisational affiliation of the review
UCL Institute of Child Health
Dr Logan Manikam, UCL Institute of Child Health Ms Lucy Stephenson, UCL Institute of Child Health Dr Charlotte Williams, UCL Institute of Child Health Dr Raghu Lingam, Newcastle University Dr Sonia Ahmed, UCL Institute of Child Health Professor Monica Lakhanpaul, UCL Institute of Child Health
Dr Joia De Sa, UCL Institute of Child Health
Anticipated or actual start date
01 November 2014
Anticipated completion date
01 November 2015
No funding obtained. Study sponsored by NIHR North Thames CLAHRC.
Formal screening of search results against eligibility criteria
Risk of bias (quality) assessment
PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. CRD bears no responsibility or liability for the content of this registration record, any associated files or external websites.