Twelve studies (686 patients) were included: 2 RCTs, 2 case series and 8 single case reports.
One RCT evaluating hypodermoclysis using electrolyte-containing solutions reported adverse effects, with 4 of the 17 patients suffering either erythema around the needle insertion site or mild hyponatremia. Efficacy was assessed in 2 RCTs of hypodermoclysis versus intravenous therapy; neither showed a statistically-significant difference. Two case reports of hypodermoclysis were thought to support its use.
Two case series and one case report of the efficacy and adverse effect profiles of hypodermoclysis used electrolyte-free solutions. One case series reported side-effects in 12 patients, 9 of whom had fluid overload.
Two case reports of hypodermoclysis using hypertonic solutions reported adverse effects in 2 patients, one with severe shock. It should be noted that these studies use different measures of efficacy, and none use valid clinical outcomes such as urinary output, cardiovascular status or status of mucous membranes.
In 3 case reports of hypodermoclysis using unspecified fluid types, one patient was reported to have had a severe adverse reaction causing pain.