Twenty-two studies (3,112 participants; range 19 to 652) were included in the review: 16 were randomised controlled trials (RCTs), one was a prospective cohort study, four were pre-/post-test designs and one had a convenience sample. One RCT was considered to be at low risk of bias, 15 studies were at moderate risk of bias and six studies were at high risk of bias (full results were reported in the review).
HbA1c: Meta-analysis suggested that the interventions reduced HbA1c levels but the results were not statistically significant (MD -0.32, 95% CI -0.65 to 0.01; 12 study arms; I²=88%).
Weight: Three of four studies that assessed the effects of community-based physical activity interventions on weight outcomes reported a reduction in weight and body mass index.
Physical activity: Seven studies reported increases in overall physical activity and others reported improvements in specific measurements such as muscle strength (results fully reported in the review).
Results for other outcomes were reported in the review.