Study designs of evaluations included in the review
All data from postmarketing surveillance studies, clinical trials, case reports, spontaneous reporting programmes and Phase I studies were included in the review.
Specific interventions included in the review
Papers needed to report information relating to the safety of black cohosh. Combination products and homeopathic preparations were excluded. The majority of the included clinical studies used Remifemin (Schaper and Brummer). The doses in the clinical studies ranged from 20 to 80 drops or from 2 to 6 tablets daily (dosage in mg not stated). Where stated, the treatment lasted from 20 days to 18 months.
Participants included in the review
All types of participant appeared to be eligible. The studies included participants with menopausal problems and those taking black cohosh for a variety of menstrual conditions.
Outcomes assessed in the review
All types of adverse events appeared to be eligible for the review.
How were decisions on the relevance of primary studies made?
The authors did not state how the papers were selected for the review, or how many reviewers performed the selection.