Study designs of evaluations included in the review
Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were eligible for inclusion. However, one meta-analysis and 7 retrospective post hoc analyses were also included.
Specific interventions included in the review
Studies that assessed any medication currently approved for the treatment of osteoporosis were eligible for inclusion. The drugs assessed in the review were risedronate, raloxifene and alendronate versus placebo. The participants also received calcium and vitamin D supplements where indicated.
Participants included in the review
Adults with postmenopausal osteoporosis, or those at risk for or experiencing glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, were included. In the studies conducted in postmenopausal women, most had established oestoporosis defined as prevalent vertebral fracture at baseline and/or had a T-score of less than or equal to 2.0 at one of the skeletal sites tested. In the studies conducted in participants receiving long-term glucocorticoids, most had received therapy for one year.
Outcomes assessed in the review
Studies that reported 1-year vertebral risk fracture outcome data were included.
How were decisions on the relevance of primary studies made?
The author did not state how the papers were selected for the review, or how many reviewers performed the selection.