Study designs of evaluations included in the review
There was no specific inclusion criterion in relation to the study design. The majority of the included studies were retrospective cohort studies; there was one prospective cohort study.
Specific interventions included in the review
Studies that investigated the effect of beta-lactam antibiotics plus macrolide or fluoroquinolone monotherapy in comparison with beta-lactam antibiotics alone were eligible for inclusion.
Participants included in the review
Studies of adult patients hospitalised with CAP were eligible. Patients with CAP who were also infected with the human immunodeficiency virus were excluded, as were those that suffered from nosocomial pneumonia (originating in hospital). Studies of CAP managed in an out-patient setting were also excluded. In two of the studies patients had a positive blood culture for S. pneumoniae, and in one study no infiltrate on chest X-ray was necessary.
Outcomes assessed in the review
Mortality or length of stay were necessary outcomes for inclusion in the review.
How were decisions on the relevance of primary studies made?
The authors did not state how the papers were selected for the review, or how many reviewers performed the selection.