Study designs of evaluations included in the review
Inclusion criteria for the study design were not specified. The included studies were experimental or quasi-experimental studies, or uncontrolled (pre-test post-test) studies.
Specific interventions included in the review
All interventions for smoking cessation were eligible for the review. The included studies were of clinic- and non-clinic-based interventions. The non-clinic-based interventions were delivered through schools, churches, or by mail and telephone contacts. The interventions in the included studies used printed materials (tailored or untailored), some form of counselling (individual or group), videos, and systems prompts. Some of the clinic-based interventions used a recognised behavioural paradigm as the basis for their intervention. Some interventions were culturally specific, others were not. Pharmacological smoking cessation agents were not included in this review.
Participants included in the review
Studies of racial and ethnic minority adult (aged over 18) populations in the USA were eligible: Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders, Black/African Americans, Hispanic Americans, and Native Americans/Alaska Natives. Studies of broader populations were included if the data for specific minority groups could be extracted, or if the ethnic group made up at least 50% of the population. The majority of the included studies were of Black Americans.
Outcomes assessed in the review
Studies that reported cessation rates were eligible. The primary outcome in the review was the proportion of patients achieving abstinence.
How were decisions on the relevance of primary studies made?
The authors did not state how the papers were selected for the review, or how many reviewers performed the selection.