Study designs of evaluations included in the review
Any effectiveness study and studies comparing cohorts of relapsed and smoke-free women were eligible for inclusion. Of the included studies, eight assessed the effectiveness of a specific intervention, while five appeared to describe different cohorts.
Specific interventions included in the review
Studies of pre- or postpartum smoking relapse prevention or treatment interventions were eligible for inclusion. Studies not investigating the effects of a specific intervention but comparing cohorts of women who relapsed with those who remained nonsmokers were also eligible for inclusion. This abstract focuses on the intervention studies only. The included intervention studies investigated a variety of interventions, such as nurses providing counselling at birth and telephone counselling, and Healthy Options for Pregnancy and Parenting (HOPP) or Stop Tobacco for OuR Kids (STORK) programmes.
Participants included in the review
The review did not specify any inclusion criteria for the participants. Where stated, the participants in the included intervention studies were women who had smoked before their pregnancy, pregnant women who quit smoking during pregnancy or before the first prenatal visit, pregnant women who smoked in managed care settings, and programme staff and obstetric and paediatric clinicians at community health clinics.
Outcomes assessed in the review
The studies had to address postpartum relapse to be eligible for inclusion. Various outcomes were extracted from the included studies. The outcomes assessed included experience about postpartum relapse, smoking behaviour, postpartum cessation relapse, pre- and postpartum relapse, programme implementation and efficacy, pre- and postpartum abstinence rates, smoking intervention practices (performance), knowledge and attitudes.
How were decisions on the relevance of primary studies made?
The authors did not state how the papers were selected for the review, or how many reviewers performed the selection.