Study designs of evaluations included in the review
Studies with a pre-test post-test design (controlled or uncontrolled) were eligible for inclusion. Studies with only one participant were excluded.
Specific interventions included in the review
Studies of music therapy were eligible for inclusion. Studies addressing the effects of music alone or of music education were excluded. The included studies involved a range of music therapy models. Some studies were of individual-based therapy, while others were in a group setting.
Participants included in the review
Studies of children or adolescents with psychopathology were eligible for inclusion. The included studies covered a wide range of clinical diagnoses, ranging from developmental disorders to conduct disorders. The participants were aged from 4 to 19 years.
Outcomes assessed in the review
To be included, the studies had to report clinically relevant outcomes at the level of the individual participant, but no particular outcomes were specified. Studies where the measured outcome was considered too similar to what was done in therapy sessions were excluded from the review. The included studies reported behavioural observations, tests of development, and self-reports of self-esteem measured using a variety of instruments.
How were decisions on the relevance of primary studies made?
The authors did not state how the papers were selected for the review, or how many reviewers performed the selection.