Twenty-three RCTs (n=2,064) were included.
Ginkgo biloba: of the 5 RCTs (n=1,403) identified, three showed that Ginkgo biloba significantly reduced tinnitus intensity compared with placebo and two showed no significant difference between treatments.
Acupuncture: 5 RCTs (n=121) were identified. Three RCTs showed no significant difference between acupuncture and placebo. One RCT found results differed according to the outcome assessed: there was no significant difference when using objective measures of tinnitus, but there was subjective improvement in a higher proportion of patients receiving acupuncture (5 out of 14) compared with placebo (0 out of 14)). One RCT found significant short-term improvement in tinnitus intensity with acupuncture but no statistically significant difference between treatments at 6 months.
Low-power laser treatment: all 3 RCTs (n=126) showed no statistically significant difference between laser and placebo.
Homeopathy: the single RCT (n=28) found showed no statistically significant difference between homeopathy (sodium salicylate, ascaridole, conine and quinine) and placebo in tinnitus-related outcomes.
Hypnotherapy: the 2 RCTs (n=100) identified found that hypnotherapy had no effect on tinnitus. However, hypnotherapy increased relaxation in one RCT (in 5 out of 14 patients) and improved the sense of well-being in the other RCT (in 20 out of 44 patients given hypnotherapy versus 6 out of 42 given placebo).
Ultrasound: of the 2 RCTs (n=80) identified, one found ultrasound led to increased subjective improvement compared with placebo while the other found no statistically significant difference in tinnitus measures.
Electromagnetic therapy: 4 RCTs (n=156) were identified. Three RCTs showed no statistically significant difference between electromagnetic therapy and placebo. One RCT showed electromagnetic therapy significantly improved a tinnitus symptom score (45% improved versus 9% with placebo).
Ear-canal magnets: the single RCT (n=50) found showed no statistically significant difference between ear magnets and placebo.