Study designs of evaluations included in the review
All research designs were eligible for inclusion.
Specific interventions included in the review
Studies of athletic PPE were eligible for inclusion. The included cardiovascular screening studies were of electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiography and combinations of clinical history, physical examination and echocardiogram or ECG.
Reference standard test against which the new test was compared
Inclusion criteria for the reference standard test were not specified. The majority of the included studies used echocardiography as the reference standard test.
Participants included in the review
Studies of athletes and/or student athletes younger than 36 years of age were eligible for inclusion. The included studies were of high school and university student athletes, military conscripts and competitive athletes. The majority of the studies included mainly male participants.
Outcomes assessed in the review
Inclusion criteria for the outcomes were not specified. The following measures were reported where available: sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and false positives.
How were decisions on the relevance of primary studies made?
The authors did not state how the papers were selected for the review, or how many reviewers performed the selection.