Study designs of evaluations included in the review
The inclusion criteria stated that randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were eligible for inclusion; however, controlled clinical trials (CCTs) were also included. The unit of randomisation of the included studies was the workplace. The duration of follow-up ranged from 3 months to 2.5 years.
Specific interventions included in the review
Studies of environmental modification of the worksite or company canteen were eligible for inclusion. All of the included studies used multi-component interventions (including education, counselling, incentives, information, change in smoking policy and family counselling) and all used environmental modification to encourage healthy eating, targeting dietary intake of fruit, vegetables, fat and fibre. Most studies targeted lifestyle factors to reduce cancer; others aimed to reduce cardiovascular risks and cholesterol levels, or to promote a general healthy lifestyle or to increase physical activity. Most of the studies used multiple sites, with an average of 20 worksites per study (range: 2 to 111). Details of all included interventions were reported.
Participants included in the review
Studies targeting healthy workers or employees were eligible for inclusion. The primary studies included blue- and white-collar workers in a variety of industries (details were reported).
Outcomes assessed in the review
Studies that assessed physical activity, dietary intake, or health risk indicators such as body mass index (BMI), blood-pressure, serum cholesterol level and percentage body fat, were eligible for inclusion. All of the included studies used a self-reported questionnaire to assess changes in dietary intake.
How were decisions on the relevance of primary studies made?
Two reviewers independently selected the studies.