Study designs of evaluations included in the review
Randomised and non-randomised controlled trials were eligible for inclusion.
Specific interventions included in the review
Studies were eligible for inclusion in the review if they examined physical exercise after surgery or during or after chemotherapy, radiotherapy, hormonal therapy, or combinations thereof. Exercise had to aim to improve endurance or muscular strength; walking, swimming, weight training, and cycling were mentioned as eligible interventions. Relaxation exercises, such as yoga, were excluded. Exercise could take place in hospital or home settings.
Participants included in the review
The authors did not report any inclusion criteria for the participants, apart from people undergoing surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy or hormonal therapy for cancer. The included studies comprised people with breast cancer, bone marrow and peripheral stem cell transplant, and mixed solid tumours.
Outcomes assessed in the review
Eligible studies included at least one of the following outcomes: oxygen consumption per unit of time, body composition, walking distance, psychological distress, self-reported health-related quality of life, fatigue, and exercise levels or levels of physical activity. The authors did not define a primary outcome for the review.
How were decisions on the relevance of primary studies made?
One author performed the initial search to identify eligible studies. A second person verified the search. Any disagreements about inclusion were resolved by consensus.