Study designs of evaluations included in the review
No specific inclusion criteria for the effectiveness studies were stated. Descriptive and experimental studies were eligible for inclusion. The studies included in the review were randomised and non-randomised studies.
Specific interventions included in the review
No inclusion criteria for the effectiveness studies were stated. The review was limited to compliance with lifestyle recommendations addressed in the European Society of Cardiology and the American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology. The included studies assessed a variety of protocols, most of which involved education and counselling relating to medication and lifestyle; most studies included telephone follow-ups as well as reviews at a HF clinic. The control interventions were not described; some studies were before-and-after studies. The duration of treatment ranged from 30 days to 12 months.
Participants included in the review
Studies with adult HF patients were eligible for inclusion. Studies of health care providers and their adherence to guidelines were excluded. In the included studies, the mean age of the participants ranged from 52 to 85 years and 27 to 73% were female. No information on co-morbidities or medication use was reported.
Outcomes assessed in the review
Studies that included any measure of compliance (medication or lifestyle recommendations) as an outcome were eligible for inclusion. The included studies reported on the following outcomes: medication compliance (method of measurement not defined), daily weighing, fluid restriction, dietary compliance and sodium restriction adherence.
How were decisions on the relevance of primary studies made?
Two authors were involved in selecting and reviewing the papers. There was no information on how disagreements were resolved.