Study designs of evaluations included in the review
Inclusion criteria were not specified in terms of the study design.
Specific interventions included in the review
Studies that evaluated interventions aimed at increasing indices of happiness were eligible for inclusion. In the review, the interventions were classified into six categories: structured stimulation; microswitch-based stimulation; leisure activities and favourite work tasks or conditions; positive environmental or positive behaviour support programmes and mindful caregiving; favourite stimulation automatically delivered on exercise engagement; and snoezelen (an approach that provided stimulation through a variety of devices, for example spot lights and mirror balls, optic fibre sprays and vibrating pads, distributed within a special environment). The duration of the intervention sessions ranged from 2.5 to 40 minutes and the number of sessions ranged from 1 to 307.
Participants included in the review
Studies in people with severe/profound intellectual and multiple disabilities were eligible for inclusion. The primary studies included ambulatory and non-ambulatory patients aged (where reported) between 5 and 73 years. Most of the studies involved people with both intellectual and sensory impairments.
Outcomes assessed in the review
Studies that presented group or individual data on indices of happiness were eligible for inclusion. Details of the outcomes in the included studies were not reported.
How were decisions on the relevance of primary studies made?
The authors did not state how the papers were selected for the review, or how many reviewers performed the selection.