Study designs of evaluations included in the review
Studies with experimental designs using group methodology or single-case designs with adequate controls were eligible for inclusion. Single-case designs with inadequate baseline, without an adequate period of time to establish a treatment trend, or with inadequately defined target behaviours, were excluded.
Specific interventions included in the review
The inclusion criteria did not specify the treatments. The included studies assessed individual treatments or combined treatment programmes. The treatments included functional communication training; differential reinforcement of other behaviours; time out; noncontingent reinforcement; aversive stimuli; manipulation of establishing operations; social skills training; and the pharmacological treatment, risperidone.
Participants included in the review
Studies of children and adolescents with an intellectual or developmental disability aged from 0 to 22 years were eligible for inclusion. Studies of older people were excluded unless the results for those under 22 years could be extracted separately.
Outcomes assessed in the review
The inclusion criteria did not specify the outcomes. The outcomes reported by the included studies were frequency of aggressive behaviour, and conduct problems, compliant/calm and adaptive social scores on the Nisonger Child Behaviour Rating Form (NCBRF).
How were decisions on the relevance of primary studies made?
The authors did not state how the papers were selected for the review, or how many reviewers performed the selection.