Study designs of evaluations included in the review
Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), systematic reviews and meta-analyses were eligible for inclusion in the review. Only RCTs were identified and included.
Specific interventions included in the review
Studies of sedation techniques were eligible for inclusion. The interventions of interest were IAL and IVAS. In the included studies, patients in the IAL groups were given 1% lidocaine while patients in the IVAS groups were given narcotic combinations.
Participants included in the review
Studies of patients with shoulder dislocations were eligible for inclusion. The included studies evaluated small groups of consecutive patients presenting to the emergency department with acute or traumatic anterior shoulder dislocation. The studies excluded patients with multiple trauma, associated fractures of the glenoid or tuberosities, open growth plates, or history of allergic reaction to any of the medications used in the study.
Outcomes assessed in the review
The outcomes of interest were the ease of performance, effectiveness, pain intensity and safety of reduction of shoulder dislocation, along with the speed of discharge of the patient. The included studies assessed the following outcomes: success rate, pain score, difficulty of reduction, time of reduction, complications, time delay, emergency room time and costs.
How were decisions on the relevance of primary studies made?
The authors did not state how the papers were selected for the review, or how many reviewers performed the selection.