Study designs of evaluations included in the review
Single- or double-blind randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were eligible for inclusion.
Specific interventions included in the review
Studies of auricular needle acupuncture compared with sham control were eligible for inclusion. Studies of moxibustion, laser acupuncture, or transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation were excluded. The focus of the intervention was based on the five points of addiction according to the National Acupuncture Detoxification Association (NADA) protocol.
Participants included in the review
Studies of people addicted to cocaine, or where crack cocaine was their main addiction, were eligible for inclusion.
Outcomes assessed in the review
There were no specific inclusion criteria relating to the outcomes. The outcomes reported in the included studies were urine toxicology rests, cocaine use toxicology screens, the Cocaine Craving Questionnaire-Now score, and the Skin Conductance Activity score.
How were decisions on the relevance of primary studies made?
The author did not state how the papers were selected for the review, or how many reviewers performed the selection.