Twelve studies (n=4,444) were included in the review. Half of the included studies were uncontrolled before-and-after designs.
The quality of all included studies was considered to be weak.
In all 8 studies measuring knowledge (n=1,493), higher scores were reported in the intervention groups compared with the control or pre-intervention results. In 2 studies this was observed up to 1 year post-intervention.
Behaviours (10 studies).
In 7 studies (n=1,789) the indications were that spinal care behaviours could be improved as a result of participation in a spinal health intervention. In 2 studies this was observed up to 1 year post-intervention. Three studies were inconclusive, or had statistically insignificant results. One of these studies contained the largest sample size of all those included in the review.
Pain prevalence (2 studies).
One study (n=1,128) measuring pain prevalence reported a significant decrease (from 32% to 23%, p<0.05) in the intervention group at 1 year post-intervention. In the other study (n=1,715), significantly lower prevalence was reported in the study cohort at post-intervention testing (p=0.0000). The authors reported that only 38% of the original study participants were involved in the post-test stage.