Study designs of evaluations included in the review
Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were eligible for inclusion.
Specific interventions included in the review
Studies that compared intrathecal (ITS) and intramuscular (IMS) administration of ATS were eligible for inclusion. Human immunoglobulin (TIG) and equine antitoxin were included in the review. The doses ranged from 50 to 1,500 IU in the ITS arm and from 250 to 40,000 IU in the IMS arm. Two studies also considered the use of steroids.
Participants included in the review
Adults and neonates with tetanus were eligible for inclusion. Half of the included studies were conducted in adults and half in neonates.
Outcomes assessed in the review
The primary outcome was the mortality rate. Other outcomes included adverse events and length of hospital stay.
How were decisions on the relevance of primary studies made?
The authors did not state how papers were selected for the review, or how many reviewers performed the selection. Papers were required to provide the following information: intervention and outcome data, country in which trial was conducted, year of publication, sample size, age of the participants and dosage.