Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or clinical trials dealing with the treatment of uncomplicated or primary acute pyelonephritis were eligible for inclusion. Studies were excluded if they dealt with pyelonephritis during pregnancy.
Included trials were in both adults and children, within which the duration, route and setting of therapy differed. The included trials evaluated various regimens of drugs. Duration of therapy for adults ranged from four to 20 days. Treatment duration in children averaged, or exceeded, two weeks in just under half of the studies. The review addressed clinical success, microbiological success, outcome of failures and scars (as defined in the primary trials). Trials were undertaken in Europe, Turkey, USA, Asia, Australia and New Zealand, plus studies from different continents.
Two reviewers selected studies based on the stated inclusion criteria with discrepancies resolved though discussion.