Eligible study designs included cohort studies, case-control studies and controlled studies; case reports and case series were excluded. Controlled clinical trials, randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and one cohort study were included in the review.
Studies that assessed metoclopramide for reflux were eligible for inclusion in the review. In trials with more than one treatment arm, only analyses comparing metoclopramide with no intervention or placebo were considered for inclusion. Metoclopramide dosages varied between the studies, ranging from 0.1 to 1 mg/kg, given either in a single dose or up to 4 times daily.
Studies that assessed infants were eligible for inclusion in the review. The population ranged from pre-term infants (23 to 36 weeks) to infants aged 18 months old, and included neurologically impaired and post-operative infants.
Studies looking at efficacy, effectiveness and toxicity were eligible. The outcomes included clinical symptoms of GERD (e.g. reflux symptoms), pH-probe results, gastrointestinal motility, growth, tolerance to feeding and adverse events.
The authors did not state how the papers were selected for the review, or how many reviewers performed the selection.