Study designs of evaluations included in the review
Inclusion criteria were not defined in terms of the study design.
Specific interventions included in the review
Studies of physical examination orthopaedic procedures were eligible for inclusion. Studies had to report data for single tests, rather than multidimensional tests reported as a single value. The specific orthopaedic tests evaluated by the included studies were: SI compression, SI distraction, thigh thrust, Gaenslen, sacral thrust, Fabere, posterior shear, resisted abduction, Gillet, SI aggravation, Ely, Yoeman, sacral base spring, Spurling, shoulder abduction, Valsalva, cervical distraction, median N. tension, radial N. tension, Bell, hyperextension, straight leg raise (SLR), crossed SLR, ASLR, pelvic pain, provocation, SI gapping, Adam's forward bend, extension-rotation, Kernig, Brudzkinski, rib-pelvis distance and Hoffmann.
Reference standard test against which the new test was compared
Inclusion criteria were not defined in terms of the reference standard. Details of the reference standards used in the included studies were not specified.
Participants included in the review
Inclusion criteria were not defined in terms of the participants. The conditions evaluated by the included studies were: sacroiliac joint pain/dysfunction, soft cervical disc prolapse, cervical radiculopathy, lumbar disc herniation, cervical spinal cord compression, posterior pelvic pain since pregnancy, scoliosis, vertebrobasilar blood flow, lumbar vertebral fractures, lumbar disc prolapse, meningitis, lumbopelvic pain/dysfunction, lumbosacral radiculopathy and cervical spine/neck pain.
Outcomes assessed in the review
Studies had to report data on the sensitivity and specificity to be included in the review.
How were decisions on the relevance of primary studies made?
Two reviewers independently selected studies for inclusion. Any disagreements were resolved through consensus.