Two randomised trials and one controlled study were included in the review (n=549).
Assertive community treatment.
One study reported no significant differences between the intervention (rural integrated service agency) and rural control groups for average number of days hospitalised per year, although rate of hospitalisation was significantly lower in the intervention group for the first 2 years (chi-squared 5.7, p=0.017 in year one; chi-squared 5.2, p=0.023 in year 2). No significant differences were found for symptoms, rates of arrest,
medication compliance, homelessness, or criminal victimisation. Findings for the rural intervention were comparable to those for urban intervention outcomes. The second study reported reduced number of days hospitalised for the intervention group (F=5.33, p=0.002), but no significant differences were found for symptoms, level of functioning, or social support.
Sample sizes for the two studies were 214 and 182, and follow-up durations were 3 years and 1 year.
Intensive case management.
This study reported significant differences between groups for quality of life and Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale scores, favouring the intervention group (t=3.85, p<0.01 and t=2.12, p<0.05, respectively). No significant differences were reported for hospitalisation outcomes, legal outcomes, or vocational
functioning. However, the total number of days hospitalised was higher for the control group (t=2.21, p<0.05, effect size 0.39).