Twenty-six studies (n=50) were included. The design of the studies was not specified but they appear to have been before-and-after studies. Most of the studies included only a single participant.
Ten studies (n=19) utilised interventions that manipulated antecedent conditions to treat challenging behaviour and reported positive results, although 2 studies (n=7) appeared to report mixed results.
Five studies (n=11) assessed change in challenging behaviour using change in instructional context. Four studies (n=10) reported decreases in challenging behaviour during the intervention and one (n=1) reported inconclusive results, with erratic behaviour being observed throughout the study.
Eight studies (n=17) assessed the use of differential reinforcement of other behaviour to achieve a decrease in challenging behaviour. Seven studies (n=16) reported positive results, while one (n=1) had mixed results.
Three studies (n=3) evaluated the use of a self-management strategy to decrease challenging behaviour. Only one study (n=1) reported positive results using an activity schedule; the remaining 2 studies (n=2) reported mixed results.