Two studies were included (total number of participants unclear): one prospective study (n=15) and a study of unknown study design (number of participants not reported).
The authors of the primary study that evaluated the Sedation Withdrawal Score reported that this score was clinically sensitive in detecting abstinence in a child of any age with signs of withdrawal from sedatives and/or opioids, however, no data were reported.
The predictive validity of the Opioid and Benzodiazepine Withdrawal Scale was assessed in one study that assessed children aged six weeks to 28 months (n=15). Sensitivity at score 8 or higher (indicating withdrawal) was 50 per cent, specificity was 87 per cent and the positive predictive value was 4.0 and the negative predictive value was 0.57. Inter-rater reliability was higher than 0.8 (the agreement procedure was not published).