Study designs of evaluations included in the review
Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of at least 3 months' duration were eligible for inclusion.
Specific interventions included in the review
Studies that compared 'obesogenic' drugs with placebo, an alternative drug or other treatment were eligible for inclusion. Studies that primarily investigated the use or effect of a combination of 'obesogenic' drugs were excluded, as were studies where the drug was used to treat a disease usually characterised by weight loss. The drugs included were valproate, lithium, clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone, ziprasidone, prednisone, insulin, glipizide, glimepiride, glibenclamide, chloropropamide, troglitazone, rosiglitazone, pioglitazone, nortriptyline, doxepin, amitriptyline, atenolol, metoprolol and propranolol. Doses ranged from 0.25 to 2,115 mg/day and follow-up ranged from 12 weeks to 10 years.
Participants included in the review
Participants aged over 18 years old that had been prescribed a drug considered obesogenic were eligible for inclusion. The patients included had the following conditions: bipolar disorder, epilepsy, schizo-affective disorder, schizophrenia, psychosis, borderline personality disorder, acute mania, alcohol dependence, Graves ophthalmopathy, type 2 diabetes, depression, hypertension and post-myocardial infarction.
Outcomes assessed in the review
To be eligible for inclusion outcome measures had to include measured weight change reported quantitatively. Studies in which body weight was self-reported were excluded.
How were decisions on the relevance of primary studies made?
Two reviewers independently applied the inclusion criteria.