Eight RCTs (n=2,721, range 18 to 1,565) were included. All studies were double-blind (including outcome assessors). Allocation concealment and the method of randomisation was adequate in five trials. Seven RCTs used an ITT analysis. Four studies reported no losses to follow-up.
There was no statistically significant difference between treatments in terms of all-cause mortality (RR 0.76, 95% CI 0.54 to 1.08, I2=0%; eight RCTs); subgroup analyses yielded similar results.
There was no statistically significant difference in incidence of febrile episodes (RR 0.76, 95% CI 0.55 to 1.03, I2=96%; eight RCTs).
Subgroup analyses suggested significant benefit for outpatient groups who received fluoroquinolone (RR 0.34, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.80; two RCTs).