Study designs of evaluations included in the review
Diagnostic studies that employed a reference standard were eligible for inclusion in the review.
Specific interventions included in the review
Studies that used lateral cephalograms, or lateral radiographs comparable to a standardised conventional lateral cephalogram, and took cephalometric measurements of the adenoids or the immediate surrounding area in the nasopharyngeal lumen were eligible for inclusion in the review.
Reference standard test against which the new test was compared
Studies that used an alternative diagnostic method were eligible for inclusion. The following reference standards appear to have been specifically considered: cephalometric comparison, nasal resistance, clinical examination, post-surgery adenoid measurement, nasoendoscopy and 3D-imaging. Of these, endoscopy, post-surgery measurement, clinical questionnaires, cephalometric comparison and nasal resistance were used in the included studies.
Participants included in the review
Studies of children and adolescents were eligible for inclusion. Studies of children and adolescents aged between 5 and 17 years, and with a group who had posterior nasopharyngeal obstruction, were considered to have adequate selection criteria.
Outcomes assessed in the review
Studies that reported useful statistical comparisons were eligible for inclusion. The outcomes reported in the review included adenoid area, linear measures and degree of nasopharyngeal obstruction.
How were decisions on the relevance of primary studies made?
Two reviewers independently assessed the references retrieved, and full papers were ordered for references selected by either reviewer. Two reviewers then independently assessed studies for inclusion in the review and any disagreements were resolved by discussion.