Study designs of evaluations included in the review
Clinical studies or reports were eligible for inclusion. Descriptive studies (preliminary reports, case studies and pilot studies), in vitro and in vivo animal experiments, and systematic reviews were excluded. The study designs included were prospective and retrospective studies and a clinical report.
Specific interventions included in the review
Studies of dental implants placed using the osteotome technique for site preparation with or without sinus floor elevation were eligible for inclusion. Studies using the osteotome technique for sinus floor elevation only were excluded. Most of the studies followed Summers' description of the osteotome technique; one used a calibrated trephine drill in addition to the osteotome technique. The loading time ranged from 0 to 80 months. The mean follow-up time ranged from 6 to 56 months.
Participants included in the review
Inclusion criteria were not defined in terms of the participants, but appear to have been patients receiving dental implants. Where recorded, 44% of the patients were male.
Outcomes assessed in the review
The outcomes eligible for inclusion were not clearly defined. The primary outcome was the survival rate of dental implants. Other outcomes recorded were the number of implant failures and complications.
How were decisions on the relevance of primary studies made?
Two reviewers independently screened studies for selection, and any differences were resolved by discussion. Inter-rater reliability was calculated using Cohen's kappa coefficient and a high level of agreement was found.