Study designs of evaluations included in the review
There were no inclusion criteria for the study design.
Specific interventions included in the review
Studies of structured single-form, or complex group interventions were eligible for inclusion. The included interventions addressed problem-solving, anger/aggression management, deliberate self-harm, and others involving a range of cognitive-behavioural components. Where reported, the numbers of sessions ranged from 6 to 54, and were conducted on a weekly or bi-weekly basis, over a period of up to 18 months.
Participants included in the review
Studies of offenders with mental disorder were eligible for inclusion. The majority of studies focused on male participants. All of the studies were located in hospital settings, with half conducted in British high- and medium-security units. Mental disorders varied and, where stated, included axis I, personality disorders, psychopathic disorders, paedophilia and schizophrenia.
Outcomes assessed in the review
There were no inclusion criteria for the outcomes. A range of outcomes was assessed, including cognitive strategies, depression, dissociation, survival and coping, suicide, and other mental health indices. Various outcome measures were used, such as interview, self-report, observation, consumer evaluation and non-standardised assessments.
How were decisions on the relevance of primary studies made?
The authors did not state how the papers were selected for the review, or how many reviewers performed the selection.