A total of 12 RCTs (n=2,060) were included in the review.
Study quality was variable, with Jadad scores ranging from 1 to 3 points for the included RCTs (none were double-blind). Studies with lower scores (1 or 2) had consistently larger effects than those with higher scores (3).
All-cause mortality (12 RCTs, n=2,060): there was a non significant reduction in mortality for pharmacist care versus control (OR 0.84, 95% CI: 0.61, 1.15; I2=19%).
All-cause hospitalisation (11 RCTs, n=2,026): there was a significant reduction in all-cause hospitalisation for pharmacist care versus control (OR 0.71, 95% CI: 0.54, 0.94), though the study results were somewhat heterogeneous (I2=50%).
HF hospitalisation rates (11 RCTs, n=1,977): there was a significant reduction in HF hospitalisation for pharmacist care versus control (OR 0.69, 95% CI: 0.51, 0.94), though there was some heterogeneity among study results (I2=40%).
Subgroup analyses indicated that pharmacist collaborative care was associated with a greater reduction in risk for HF hospitalisation than pharmacist-directed interventions (p=0.02). There were no significant differences between the types of intervention on mortality or all-cause hospitalisation (p=0.40 for both).
The results for individual study sensitivity analyses were also reported.