Fifty-two studies were included in the review: 36 were quantitative (n=3,832); 11 were conceptual; and five qualitative. There was a discrepancy between the text and tables in that 35 studies were tabulated.
Intervention studies of the effect of problem solving on diabetes outcome in children/adolescents (eight studies): Two studies reported a positive intervention effect on problem-solving ability. Six studies reported on the effects on self-management behaviours with improvements noted in dietary intake, self-monitoring of blood glucose and treatment adherence. Two studies reported significant decreases in A1C level for the intervention group. Improvements in self-efficacy were reported in three studies.
Intervention studies of the effect of problem solving on diabetes outcome in adults (eight studies): Six studies reported on the effects on self-management behaviours with improvements, four of them with dietary behaviours. Self-monitoring of blood glucose in two studies, exercise in three studies and medication adherence in one study were all reported to show improvements at six or 12 months. Four studies reported decreases in A1C level following intervention and two studies decreased weight.