The review included 16 studies, all case series (n=652, range 12 to 142).
Mortality and morbidity (16 studies): The overall median procedural mortality and morbidity rates were 0% (range 0% to 5.6%; 16 studies) for mortality and 35.7% (range 15.2% to 55.6%; 16 studies) for morbidity. The most frequent complications were pneumothorax (median rate 28%, range 4.5% to 61.1%; eight studies) and pleural effusion (median 13.4%, range 1.3% to 60%; 10 studies). Other complications included pneumonia, pulmonary abscess, haemothorax, intrapulmonary bleeding, haemoptysis, pleuritic chest pain, cough and fever. The common complications were either self-limiting or easily managed. Median hospital stay was 1.3 days (range one to six days; nine studies).
Local disease control (12 studies): The median rate of complete tumour necrosis associated with radiofrequency ablation was 90% (range 38% to 97%; nine studies). Median rate of local recurrence in the radiofrequency ablation site was 11.2% (range 3% to 38.1%; eight studies) and median progression-free interval was 21 months (range 15 to 26.7; four studies).
Survival: Seven studies reported median survival duration after lung radiofrequency ablation, which ranged from 8.6 to 33 months (median 23 months). One-, two- and three-year survival rates were 63% to 85% (seven studies), 55% to 65% (four studies) and 15% to 46% (three studies).