Twenty-nine RCTs (n=2,174) were included in the review. Twelve of 29 studies (41 per cent) scored more than 6 points on the 10-point quality scale, representing high quality studies. Criteria not met or not reported included: randomisation in 13 studies; allocation concealment in 25 studies; and assessor blinding in 17 studies. In addition, there was substantial attrition in the trials (up to 34 per cent).
Fourteen studies reported that the progressive resistance training group performed from two per cent to 98 per cent better than the control group in a balance outcome.
Static balance tests: six of 29 studies (seven tests, 26 per cent of static balance tests) showed significantly improved balance performance.
From the 29 studies, 26 per cent of balance test, 14 per cent of dynamic tests and 57 per cent of functional balance tests showed significantly improved balance performance.
Results for a range of subgroup analyses were presented. Balance performance improved significantly more in longer-duration studies. There were no significant differences found in the analyses of cohorts, training intensity, quality assessment, assessor blinding or training equipment.