A total of 49 studies were included in the review (n=1 to 116). Duration of follow-up, where specified, ranged from three weeks to 11 years.
Maxillary reconstruction: Conventional prosthetic treatment (three studies) yielded satisfactory speech outcomes. Single studies reported a return to an unrestricted oral diet, mastication possible but below the normal level of functioning and high quality of life scores. For those who received implant-retained prosthetic treatment (six studies) satisfactory speech outcomes were reported across all studies together with improved mastication and quality of life. Where no prosthetic treatment was received (one study), speech was reported to be normal and excellent quality of life was reported in most patients.
Mandibular reconstruction: For those who received conventional prosthetic treatment (seven studies), speech was generally found to be satisfactory following surgery, a regular diet could be tolerated by patients with no swallowing difficulties and mastication was possible, but below normal levels of functioning and satisfactory quality of life outcomes were reported. Following implant-retained prosthetic treatment (16 studies), intelligible or normal speech were frequently reported, most patients were able to tolerate a normal diet, masticatory performance was improved and quality of life (in terms of cosmetic appearance and aesthetics) was improved for most patients. Where no prosthetic treatment was received (six studies), positive speech outcomes prevailed, there was postoperative tolerance of a soft or normal diet, masticatory outcomes varied between studies and for quality of life most patients reported satisfactory cosmetic appearance and better physical well-being and socio-familial relationships, and general functional well-being.