Twenty five RCTs were included in the review. Six RCTs provided detailed information on racial and ethnic diversity. Eight RCTs reported the proportion of white and non-white participants, but reported no other racial or ethnic data. Eleven RCTs reported no information on racial or ethnic diversity.
Effectiveness of interventions for minority participants (two RCTs): One RCT reported that both black and white participants reported improvements in pain, disability and walking distance. A second RCT also found no differential effectiveness of treatment by racial or ethnic group.
Differential attrition by minority participants (six RCTs): One RCT reported greater rates of attrition for non-whites; five RCTs reported no significant differences in attrition based on race or ethnicity.
Recruitment and retention of minority participants (25 RCTs): One RCT reported the development of culturally sensitive recruitment materials; 24 RCTs reported no special efforts to recruit participants from minority groups.
Interventions appropriate for minority participants: No RCTs reported efforts to ensure that interventions were appropriate for the needs or preferences of minority participants.