Controlled studies that compared any control condition with a school-based intervention to encourage fruit and/or vegetable consumption in children under the age of 18 years were eligible for the review. Studies were required to report at least three months of follow-up and record one change in intake of fruit and/or vegetables or a change in knowledge, attitude or preference to fruit and/or vegetables. Secondary outcomes of interest included impact on other food intake levels and body mass index (BMI).
Included studies were a mixture of randomised, cluster randomised and non-randomised controlled trials. Studies were carried out in a range of countries; most originated in USA. A wide range of interventions and components were evaluated including free or subsidised provision of fruits/vegetables, school-wide versus classroom-based strategies, teacher and parental involvement and community involvement. Fruit and/or vegetable intake was most commonly measured using food frequency questionnaires or 24-hour recall.
Titles and abstracts were assessed by one reviewer. Full papers were assessed independently by two reviewers. Disagreements were resolved by consensus.