Four studies (n=532), three RCTs and one quasi-experimental study, were included in the review. Two studies were rated as adequate (15/28 and 18/28), one as strong (25/28) and one as very strong (26/28).
Emotional status: using the Profile of Mood States, there was found to be significant improvements in emotional status in the self-management group compared with the comparison groups in both the short-term (effect size: –0.15 and –0.36, two studies) and longer-term (effect size: –0.22, one study). These effect sizes were considered small. One study evaluating a psychosocial programme reported a small effect size for the Positive Affect Scale (0.24), a very large effect size for the Negative Affect Scale (1.21) and a large effect size for the Geriatric Depression Scale (0.92).
Functional status: functional status was found to be significantly better in the intervention groups compared to the control groups regardless of the outcome tool used (effect size: 0.14 and 1.16, two studies). These effect sizes were considered small and very large. One study evaluating a health education programme reported improved level of security in the intervention group compared with the control group (RR: 4.5).
Self-efficacy: using the age-related macular degeneration Self-Efficacy Questionnaire there was found to be significant improvement in the intervention groups compared to the control groups (effect size: 0.23 and 0.59, two studies). These effect sizes were considered small and medium. One study evaluating a psychosocial programme reported large effect sizes for the Perceived Autonomy Scale (0.90) and for Active Problem Orientation (0.84).