Studies in nursing home populations that assessed potential benefits of medication with respect to bone mineral density and fracture reduction were eligible for inclusion. Included studies comprised randomised controlled trials (RCT) and cohort and cross-sectional studies. Excluded studies comprised: study populations with a mean age of less than 50 years; community-dwelling adults; combined nursing home population with community-dwelling population; and studies that concentrated on bone turnover markers.
Interventions included variable doses of vitamin D (with or without calcium) and alendronate. Outcomes included changes in bone mineral density and fracture outcomes. Mean patient age across studies was 79 years. For studies that reported potential benefits of medication, between 74% and 100% of residents were women.
Two independent reviewers selected the studies for inclusion. Any disagreements were resolved by discussion.