Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared music versus no music for adults (aged 18 years or over) who underwent colonoscopy were eligible for inclusion. Outcomes of interest were total procedure time, dose of sedative medications, patients' pain scores, patients' experience and willingness to repeat the procedure in the future.
The type of music used in the interventions varied between studies and included classical, radio station, easy-listening or patient-directed selections. Music was played preoperatively or during procedure only. Sedation used during procedures included midazolam and meperidine. Included studies were conducted in USA, Spain, Germany, India, China, Japan and Turkey.
Two reviewers independently assessed papers for inclusion.