Randomised controlled trials (RCT) that measured anxiety, depression, general distress, dysfunctional thinking or functioning/quality of life of ICT delivered to adults with anxiety were eligible for inclusion, provided enough information was present to enable calculation of an effect size. Studies of ICT delivered using equipment other than a standard personal computer with or without Internet connection were excluded.
Selected studies evaluated a range of different ICTs. Most consisted of psychoeducation, cognitive (restructuring and challenging) and behavioural (breathing, relaxation, exposure and goal setting) components. Some ICTs consisted solely of vicarious exposure or modelling. Where stated, the mean number of sessions completed ranged from 4.2 to 7.8. Control conditions were waiting list, treatment as usual (therapist-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy) or attentional or active placebo. Participants experienced a range of anxiety conditions of subclinical or clinical levels: generalised anxiety; post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); panic disorder; specific phobias; social phobia; and stress. The mean age of participants ranged from 19.9 years to 40.8 years. Where stated, a significant proportion of participants had a post-secondary level of education. A wide range of standardised measures were used to assess the outcomes of interest.
The authors stated neither how the studies were selected for the review nor how many reviewers performed the study selection