Forty-eight studies with approximately 4,000 patients and more than 12,000 implants were included in the review. Twenty-six studies were prospective and 22 were retrospective. Seventeen studies reported levels of dropouts, which ranged from 0% to 20%. Mean follow-up was 2.8 years
All 48 studies reported implant survival. Of 12,020 implants, 679 were lost. The pooled annual failure rate was 3.48% (95% CI 2.48% to 4.88%), which gave a three-year implant survival rate of 90.1% (95% CI 86.4% to 92.8%). Analysis at a patient level gave an annual failure rate of 6.04% (95% CI 3.87% to 9.43%) and a three-year rate of 16.6% (95% CI 10.9% to 24.6%). Results of subgroup analyses were reported.
Eighteen studies reported graft failure. Incidence ranged from 0% to 17.9%. There were 41 failures from 2,140 sinus grafts, which gave a mean failure rate of 1.9%.
The most frequent surgical complication, reported in 20 studies, was perforation of the sinus membrane. This had a prevalence range from 0% to 58.3% and a mean occurrence of 19.5%. Infection of grafted sinuses occurred rarely; 24 studies reported this with a mean incidence of 2.9% (range 0% to 7.4%). Other complications were reported to occur occasionally.